Sabina Sioco de Escaler [ 1858 – 1950 ]


The family story is one of enduring, albeit understated, wealth.  To this day, her many descendants are still counted among the ranks of affluent Manila society.

Matea Rodriguez de Sioco [ o 24 February 1835 – + 22 January 1918, 83 y.o. ] favored the simplicity and frugality of Sabina’s family, the Escaler-Sioco, and thoroughly disapproved of the elegance and sophistication of Florencia’s family, the Gonzalez-Sioco.


When Matea Rodriguez y Tuason, viuda de Sioco, viuda de Arnedo Cruz died at the age of 83 on 22 January 1918, she willed that her large estate be divided, not into two equal parts between her daughters Sabina Sioco viuda de Escaler and Florencia Sioco viuda de Gonzalez, but into three equal parts between her daughter Sabina, her favorite grandson Jose “Peping” Escaler y Sioco, and her daughter Florencia.  Thus, to the end, her favor of the Escaler-Sioco over the Gonzalez-Sioco prevailed.

Sabina’s only surviving [ half ] first cousin on her maternal Rodriguez side, Beatriz Tiamson Rodriguez [ born 1910 ], remembers that “Imang Sabi” was “morena” [ dark skin tone ], quiet, “seca” [ “dry” meaning: not warm ], intelligent, and not a very friendly individual.  Saturnine.  In contrast, her younger sister Florencia Sioco de Gonzalez, “Imang Eciang,” [ o 1860 – + 1925 ] was pretty, fair, equally intelligent, articulate, cultured, and sophisticated, doubtless due to the influence of her highly educated Spanish mestizo husband, Dr. Joaquin Gonzalez.

The life of the Escaler-Sioco family in Old Sulipan [ from 1880 – 1900 ] was simple.  They lived in the large old house [ ca. 1830 ] of Sabina’s father, Josef Sioco.  But that was it as far as affluence was concerned.  Sabina woke up before 4:00 a.m. and insisted that everyone else did so too.  Her houses were famed for their absolute cleanliness and utter simplicity.  In true Oriental style, she required that all shoes and slippers be removed at the base of the stairway and that people walk barefoot through the upstairs rooms.  The daughters, Marina “Maring,” Josefa “Sepa” / “Siting,” and Carolina “Aning” / “Carola” were tasked to clean the house along with the servants.  They cleaned the principal stairway and wiped the furniture.  The servants pulled and pushed bound banana leaves twenty times through the lengths of the “narra” floor boards until they shone like glass.  During meals, they simply leaned through the length of their “vanguera” wooden dishrack in the kitchen and ate off sectioned banana leaves.  Although the dishes were simple, the ingredients were fresh and the servings were generous, for food was the one thing that Sabina did not keep a tight budget on.  They had a big dining room and a long, sectional “narra” “cabecera” table, but it was only used for company.  At night, they laid out their “dase” [ Tagalog “banig”; woven grass mats ] on the floors and hung their “culambu” on the walls of the “caida” entrance hall and “sala” living room and slept right there, with the household staff sleeping at a respectful distance.  They owned several “narra” four poster beds, one for each member of the family, installed in the three bedrooms, but those were hardly ever used.

Thus was a great fortune born.

Her fortunes accumulated to the extent that she owned big properties in every single town of Pampanga, aside from thousand hectare “haciendas” in Nueva Ecija.  Following the example of her forward-thinking mother Matea Rodriguez, and spurred on by the two financial wizards of the family, her son Jose “Peping” Escaler y Sioco and nephew Augusto “Bosto” Gonzalez y Sioco, she eagerly acquired properties in Manila:  building after building in the burgeoning commercial district of Quiapo, mansion after mansion in the aristocratic enclave of posh San Miguel district, and block after block in the newly fashionable residential districts of Ermita and Malate.

The senior Escaler-Sioco and Gonzalez-Sioco grandchildren maintained that long stretches of land flanking the length of MacArthur highway from Apalit all the way to San Fernando once belonged to their Sioco matriarchs.  Sabina Sioco de Escaler owned a four hundred hectare stretch to the left of the highway and Florencia Sioco de Gonzalez owned a four hundred hectare stretch to the right of it… and that those parcels were only among their many landholdings.

My cousin Renato Palanca Gonzalez remembers his father Rogie’s story that a big part of what bankrolled the fledgling PASUDECO the Pampanga Sugar Development Company in 1918 was a three inch pile of Sabina Escaler’s TCTs Transfer Certificates of Title…!!!

The young Macario Arnedo Gonzalez, Brother Andrew Benjamin Gonzalez F.S.C., remembered visits with his mother [ Rosario “Charing” Arnedo de Gonzalez ] to the old Sabina, who by that time [ postwar ] was already bedridden.  On her bedside table was an old jar of “Pond’s” cream which she used as her ashtray.  She smoked her cigarettes in the old style, reverse, with the lit portion inside her mouth.  She was proper and cordial but not particularly warm.  She never failed to remind “Charing”:  “Caracal a pera a licuan ng Bosto queca.” [ “Bosto left you so much money.” ] much to the latter’s discomfiture.  After the tense formality of the audience with the grand old lady in her bedroom, the young Macarito and his mother would transfer to the living room and be entertained and served a delicious “merienda” [ afternoon tea ] of ice cream, peaches [ then a luxury ], and English cookies by “Tia Carola” [ Carolina Escaler y Sioco ], the kind and generous spinster daughter of Sabina.

Her great granddaughter Carmelita Palanca Gonzalez-Gan remembers that the frugal Sabina’s everyday skirts usually had tears and holes which were patched with other fabrics.  Bohemian chic way ahead of its time.

Renato Gonzalez remembers with amusement that Sabina would have dinner served to her family at 5:00 p.m., at the Calle Herran house, just so the lights would not have to be switched on and electricity consumed!  However, the food was always delicious, varied, and plentiful because that was how Sabina raised her family.  “She fed us very well.  Everything we wanted to eat.  There was always so much!  She was miserly with everything except for food!”

She passed away quietly at the age of 92 in 1950.  Her vast wealth was mostly divided into two parts by her grandsons Ernesto “Ernie” Ocampo Escaler and Rogerio “Rogie” Escaler Gonzalez between the families of her two deceased children, Jose “Peping” Escaler y Sioco and Marina “Maring” Escaler de Gonzalez [ between the Escaler-Ocampo and the Gonzalez-Escaler grandchildren ].  It was recalled by a Gonzalez-Escaler great grandson that “Rogie” had prevailed upon “Ernie” to share their inheritance with their unfortunate Fernandez-Escaler cousins, the children of Josefa “Sepa” / “Siting” Escaler de Fernandez, whose intended portion of their grandmother’s estate had already been consumed by her large settlement of their father’s accounts in the 1920s.

It is regrettable that a plaque honoring Sabina Escaler for her donation of several hundred hectares to Camp Olivas in San Fernando, Pampanga has been removed from the gates.  It was her gesture in memory of her favorite nephew Augusto Diosdado “Bosto” Gonzalez y Sioco, who was assassinated at the PASUDECO on 12 July 1939 along with Jose Leoncio “Pitong” de Leon and Captain Julian Olivas.

Sabina Sioco de Escaler of Pampanga remains ensconced in memory along the ranks of old world Filipinas who accumulated large fortunes by dint of hard work and frugality in their lifetimes like Ciriaca Santos de Pardo de Tavera [ ancestress of the Pardo de Taveras ], Maria “Bibing” Lopez y Villanueva and her younger sister Rosario “Sayong” Lopez de Santos [ Lopez de Iloilo matriarchs ], Enrica “Dicang” Alunan de Lizares [ ancestress of the Lizares-Alunan clan ], Tecla Chichioco de Cojuangco [ mother of Jose, Antonio, Juan, and Eduardo Cojuangco ] and her formidable sister-in-law Ysidra “Sidra” Cojuangco y Estrella [ the founder of the immense Cojuangco fortune ] of Tarlac, Genoveva “Bebing” Singson-Chiong Veloso de Villalon of Cebu [ ancestress of the Augusto Villalons ], et. al..



  1. July 1, 2010 at 9:25 am

    Dear Readers:

    We apologize because we cannot accommodate requests for individual charities here. We have already been victimized several times by unscrupulous individuals who expertly pretended to be in dire need of financial assistance. Some readers from the USA actually sent $$$ funds only to discover upon investigation that they were false entities.

    Please bring your requests to the legitimate charitable organizations.


    Toto Gonzalez

  2. vanessa sioco said,

    March 24, 2010 at 5:48 am

    hi about d sioco clan may i know they hv relatives somewhere in tarlac?

  3. Diego A. said,

    February 9, 2010 at 10:29 am

    About Renato Gonzalez, was he from Manila?

  4. dairene said,

    November 12, 2009 at 2:57 am


    I am Dairene Sioco Pampilon…….
    Hope that we have a sioco clan reunion

  5. whatever you say said,

    August 4, 2009 at 1:32 pm

    Sammie Rivilla: So many people loved your grandfather! I do not know how young you are (whose child are you, by the way?) but during the heydays, nobody could ever say that Louie was selfish. I remember the first Christmas that the Rivillas spent in Alabang … we went to visit and although both Louie and Lulu were feeling down, they, and Louie most especially, stood up, grabbed some goodies from under their buffet table and handed the goodies to us and the other guests who were also leaving. That was your grandfather! Close friends went to be with them when at a very low point in their lives … and in the end, he made every effort to uplift everybody’s spirit! Hay! Gone are the “caballero” types such as Louie …

  6. Sammie Rivilla said,

    May 25, 2009 at 1:45 pm

    To:Whatever you say!
    yes that is true my lola lulu was saved she was never killed
    & yes my tito dors said that lolo louie always thought of others 1st before him self! before my dearest lolo louie died when we’d always eat at there house every saturday (P.S. we still do) before he’d get food for him self he’s always call us! “Children come get your food na!” we loved him so much & we will always will 🙂 WE MISS YOU LOLO LOUIE- Love Sammie & The Whole Entire RIVILLA FAMILY!

  7. Sammie Rivilla said,

    May 25, 2009 at 1:39 pm

    Lola Sabina is my great great great grandmother i never ever seen her! thank you for putting up a picture if her she looks like Lolo Luis Tirso Mijares Rivilla

  8. Joanne Alunan said,

    October 13, 2008 at 11:38 pm

    hi! i was looking for information regarding my family – the alunan family. i googled it on the internet and this came up. do you happen to have further information regarding this? would really love to hear from you. thanks a lot.

  9. tek bautista said,

    May 6, 2008 at 7:21 am

    Hey Toto, do you know where I can find Lucy Gonzales, daughter of Lualhati Aldaba? Lucy is my grandmother and my grandfather is Gallardo Bautista. I’m looking forward to meet her as soon as possible; even my father never met her from the day he was born. Your help would be greatly appreciated. Have a good day.

  10. February 10, 2008 at 3:22 pm


    As there are many individuals named “Renato Gonzalez,” I am not sure if you are referring to my [ half ] first cousin Renato Palanca Gonzalez.

    To my knowledge, my cousin never lived in Nueva Ecija but he did oversee the management of the Gonzalez and Escaler “haciendas” in Talavera, Guimba, and Cuyapo towns before the 1972 agrarian reform.

    My cousin never moved to the United States because his businesses are based here. But I know that they go to the US from time to time.

    Toto Gonzalez

  11. Diego A. said,

    February 10, 2008 at 2:40 pm

    Hi, how old is Renato Gonzalez, and did he ever live in Nueva Ecija? And did he, in any case, move to the United States sometime between 1985-1990?

  12. Ginger Yu Tabora said,

    February 6, 2008 at 10:04 pm

    Hi Toto,

    Thanks for putting up a picture of my great great Lola Sabina. I have never seen a picture of her. I only have pictures of Lolo Jose and Lola Auring. It’s really too bad that my lola ( Wivinia “Bibing” Ocampo Escaler-Tabora ) isn’t around for me to share this information with. The only person I talk to about this is her brother, Lolo Freddie ( Bishop Escaler ).

    Could you possibly e-mail me Lola Sabina’s picture? I’d love to be able to show it to Lolo Freddie.

    Take care,


  13. February 1, 2008 at 3:13 pm


    The old lady in the second picture is not Sabina Sioco de Escaler [ 1858 – 1950 ], but her mother Matea Rodriguez y Tuason, viuda de Sioco, viuda de Arnedo Cruz [ 1832 – 1918 ], the lady to whom the Escaler-Sioco Clan [ specifically the Jose Escaler – Aurea Ocampo branch ] should be eternally grateful, because she left them most of her fortune and those of her two rich husbands. The lady on the left of the picture was Sabina’s Gonzalez niece-in-law Clementina Elizalde y Cacnio [ Mrs. Fernando Sioco Gonzalez ], and those are the two eldest of her four children: Amaury Elizalde Gonzalez and Eglantine Elizalde Gonzalez [ still alive at 94 y.o. ]. That picture was taken around 1915 in one of the three bedrooms of the Escaler-Sioco mansion in Sulipan, Apalit, Pampanga

    That’s true, despite everything, the Fernandez-Escaler still received a big inheritance from the Escaler estate because of Tito Rogie Gonzalez and Tito Ernie Escaler. Your grandmother Josefa, actually inherited entire BLOCKS, not individual lots, in the then-posh neighborhoods of Ermita and Malate [ worth Php billions now ]. And wasn’t the property of Provident Village in Marikina also Josefa’s??? And those were just some of her many holdings!!!

    I do miss Pia. Give her my best regards. I would love to reconnect with her after all these years. A friend actually gave me her contact numbers but I lost them.


    Toto Gonzalez

  14. martin fernandez said,

    February 1, 2008 at 2:31 pm

    Hi Toto,

    Great picture of our great grandmother, Dona Sabina. Do you know who were the 3 young children in the other picture? Regarding the Fernandez-Escaler getting the raw end of the deal, I wouldn’t worry about us too much. Lola Sepa still got a lot, still gave to charity ( like the one hectare property for the Pink Sisters ), and somehow we still managed to grow up in Forbes, just a stone’s throw away from Kuya Ato and Ate Blanquita Gonzalez.

    Told my sister, Pia, that I discovered your site and gave her the details. So you might just see her here soon.

    Keep the interesting stories coming!

  15. December 18, 2007 at 3:00 pm

    whatever you say:

    Thank you for finding your way here.

    Years ago in 2001, at the inauguration /dedication of the “Chapel of Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary” at the De La Salle University in Dasmarinas, Cavite as “The Antonio and Victoria Cojuangco Memorial,” the principal benefactors were present — Imelda Ongsiako-Cojuangco, Lourdes Cojuangco-Rivilla, and Luis Tirso Rivilla. Imelda Cojuangco was pretty as always, Lourdes Rivilla dignified and understated, and Luis Tirso Rivilla, very handsome, even in late age.

    Two aunts of mine, Eva and Lilia Rafols Gonzalez, remember Luis Tirso Rivilla from the war years, as they lived near each other along Taft Avenue. They remember him as a handsome and charming man. And his brother was even more handsome.

    Cojuangco relatives spoke admiringly and affectionately of Luis Tirso Rivilla, saying that he was a most generous gentleman, and that he was truly one person who gave “with no strings attached.”

    Marta Rivilla was a very interesting lady. She was famous for her very expensive orchids. Years ago, at some party high up over Roxas Boulevard, her grandson Raymond Rivilla Fuentes regaled us with very interesting anecdotes about her.

    I remember the saying “Success has many fathers while Failure is an orphan.” because the late international jeweller Fe S. Panlilio was very fond of repeating it to us, one of her ways to encourage the young to pursue their highest dreams, the way she herself did.


    Toto Gonzalez

  16. whatever you say said,

    December 18, 2007 at 3:25 am

    Just an addendum to the Cojuangco murders… Lulu was saved because she was carrying a baby. The baby of her brother Ramon and Nene. When they were struck with the bayonet, it was that baby who was fatally hit; the bayonet did not go deep enough into Lulu so as to cause her death. Lulu fell with the baby then she had the presence of mind to feign death. I think she was lying in blood for 2 or 3 days before she was saved. This I heard from Mrs. Lulu Rivilla herself and I hope I remember it accurately. What brutos those Japanese soldiers were!

  17. whatever you say said,

    December 18, 2007 at 3:19 am

    The Rivilla-Cojuangco Family is one of a kind! The marriage of Louie and Lulu was one of the very few Spanish-Chinese marriages that one could say was really “bagay.” Mrs. Lulu Rivilla was a complete contrast to the flamboyant Dona Marta Mijares de Rivilla ( Louie’s mother ) what with her highly simple and genteel demeanor. Mrs. Lulu Rivilla is one who seems to place a premium on privacy yet you can sense her power. I remember the endless parties in Forbes Park and Caliraya… wow! Sad that when things went awry for them, gone were the usual faces you would see in these places. Oh well, occurrences like that are not the first and it won’t be the last either. As they say: “Success has many parents whereas Failure is an orphan.” Not that the Rivillas were. No! Far from it, if you really knew them! At the eulogy delivered by Mayor Dors Rivilla for his father, he said it best when he said that Louie ALWAYS thought of others first. So true! I guess in the final analysis, his best trait was what eventually caused his downfall.

  18. Chato said,

    November 15, 2007 at 5:22 pm

    We always remember the Rivilla-Cojuangco family during our childhood days at St. Anthony’s. They were our benefactors. We love them so dearly.

  19. January 20, 2007 at 4:27 pm

    Toto, you impress me of that whole recount on the Cojuangco murders along Taft. What I have I received from the Jesuit priests retiring near the Manila Observatory. But you obviously know that to bits!

  20. October 6, 2006 at 3:40 pm


    Our family elders spoke of how rich and prominent the Cojuangcos of Tarlac always were.  All branches of their family:  be it the Jose “Pepe,” Antonio, Juan “Itoy,” or the Eduardo “Endeng.”  It just so happened that in the 1950s, it was Jose’s wife Demetria “Metring” Sumulong de Cojuangco, who controlled much of the family’s financial resources, so the family deferred to her… 

    Juan “Itoy” Cojuangco had first married Elena “Nena” Garcia, a beautiful Spanish mestiza lady who was the daughter of Paniqui’s other rich family, the Spanish mestizo Garcias. She was the daughter of the Spanish hacendero Gregorio Garcia and his second wife Aurora de la Torre. Because the Cojuangcos and the Garcias were the Montagues and the Capulets of the Verona that was Paniqui, the lovers “Itoy” and “Nena” met secretly at a small open section of the long fence, the boundary which delineated their residences that stood on a few hectares, which were back-to-back. They forthwith eloped to faraway Malaybalay, Bukidnon. When their families got over the shock of it all, the couple was summoned back to settle in Paniqui; they were given by their respective families substantial capital to do business. “Itoy” was not business-minded but “Nena” was a hardworking entrepreneur. Juan “Itoy” and Elena “Nena” actually had 3 stillborn children; the doctor had warned her to stay in bed during pregnancies but she was so industrious that she was always attending to business matters. The couple had 2 wards: Rosie and Lucy. Elena “Nena” passed away of cancer after about 15 years of marriage to Juan.  Juan “Itoy” had no intention of remaining a widower so he looked around for a second wife…

    After the war, he actually courted my widowed grandmother, Rosario “Charing” Arnedo viuda de Gonzalez [ She seemed to have the “X-factor”; she unwittingly attracted several important suitors as a young lady and several more in her widowhood ], but she was traumatized by the assassination of her husband in 1939 and the ensuing difficulties of partitioning his large estate with his first family, the Gonzalez-Escaler. Also, her youngest son “Macarito” [ who would become Brother Andrew Gonzalez F.S.C. of the De La Salle Brothers ], then 6-9 years old and a certified spoiled brat, made it a point to annoy Juan Cojuangco so that he would stop courting his mother.

    Juan Cojuangco eventually made a second marriage: to Lualhati “Hati” Aldaba of Malolos, Bulacan. Little Rosie was studying the piano under Maestra Aldaba. Eventually, with Lualhati’s charms and Little Rosie as clueless go-between, Juan courted Lualhati and they were married. They had no children.  Upon his death in the 1980s, his widow “Hati” inherited part of his large fortune.  The remainder devolved to his Cojuangco nephews and nieces. 

    If I remember correctly, Ramon Cojuangco was the son of Antonio Cojuangco and Victoria Uychuico. His sister Lourdes “Lulu” Cojuangco married Luis Tirso Rivilla [ I know that there is a distinction between Rivilla and Revilla, but I won’t go into that now ]. Yes, several members of their family — Antonio, Victoria “Toyang,” their son Antonio, their daughter Trinidad [ Mrs. Servillano “Billy” Aquino ], their pregnant daughter-in-law Natividad “Nene” de las Alas-Cojuangco [ first wife of Ramon ], and their household staff — along with several other prominent families including the De La Salle Brothers, some of whom were actually German [ 70 people in all ] — were tragically shot and bayoneted to death by 20 desperate Japanese soldiers headed by their officer at the De La Salle College chapel along Taft Avenue during the last days of the war on 12 February 1945, a Monday.

    Imelda Ongsiako-Cojuangco and Lourdes “Lulu” Cojuangco-Rivilla donated a substantial sum for the Chapel of the De La Salle University in Dasmarinas, Cavite. In honor of the Cojuangcos, it is named “The Chapel of Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary” The Antonio and Victoria Cojuangco Memorial.

    Toto Gonzalez

  21. sdcjsdpe said,

    September 23, 2006 at 6:33 am

    oops. sorry for the misspellings. As you may have suspected from what I know about the First Lady, I grew up Waray.

  22. sdcjsdpe said,

    September 23, 2006 at 6:24 am

    hahaha, i’ve heard that. the great landowning families of nueva ecija during the american period swear up and down that it’s true: the gabaldons, perezes, bautistas….they all say it was true..
    i personally don’t think so. they came from prosperous Bulacan to the hinterlands of Tarlac, which was the boonies then just like Nueva Ecija. Nobody wanted to go there because it was full of comunistas. not until the Americans said people who resettle there will get free land. I do know that the Cojuangcos—the Jose Cojuangcos married well. The Sumulongs were very powerful and controlled the camara then. That’s why they were able to get majority of a bank and some transport businesses. Their Pampango associates and financiers helped them buy the Hacienda Luisita from the Spanish remnant groups in the 50s too…so their occupying Luisita is fairly recent. That and when Cory married Ninoy it cemented the political and wealthy families of the region in one line. The Aquinos then were growing poorer by the day primarily because everytime they go into politics they carve up their lands for financial support. That’s where most of Cory’s inheritance went. You know she had to sell the one hectare lot her father bequeathed to her in Wack-Wack so Ninoy can run for the Senate…which explains why her sister’s family who married into the Reyeses of Far Eastern University (I think her name is Josephine, not sure) has/had a house in Wack-Wack and poor Cory has hers in some low-ceiling bungalow on Times Street.
    Now with the Ed*ardo Cojuangcos, they were merely in the sidelines. In fact D*nding was nothing more than a mayor of Paniqui, Tarlac then.
    And if I remember correctly the Juan Cojuangco branch died out. That and Juan Cojuangco lived out his days with a common law wife.
    Now with the Cojuangcos of PLDT I do know that Don Ramon Cojuangco was the last and only son of his father Antonio (I think that was his name)…I think his father and sisters were bayoneted by the Japanese in either some UST chapel or somewhere along Taft Avenue during the war. Five Cojuangcos died in that church, three of which were directly related to Tonyboy right now.

  23. September 21, 2006 at 4:55 pm


    I do wonder if it is Chichioco, Chichoco, or whathaveyou. All I know from the senior Cojuangcos was that Melecio Cojuangco y Estrella married Tecla Chichioco y Valenzuela and had Jose “Pepe” [ married to Demetria “Metring” Sumulong ], Antonio [ married to Victoria Uychuico ], Juan “Itoy” [ married to Elena Garcia; married to Lualhati “Hati” Aldaba ], and Eduardo “Endeng” [ married to Josephine “Nene” Murphy ].

    The legendary Ysidra Cojuangco y Estrella [ “Lola Sidra” / “Y.C.” ] was the sister of Melecio Cojuangco y Estrella.  It was she who accumulated the immense family fortune.  During prewar, the Ysidra Cojuangcos owned an impressive total of ++ 26,000 hectares of agricultural land divided into various “haciendas” spanning Tarlac, Nueva Ecija, and Pangasinan [ “Hacienda Bakal,” “Hacienda Murcia,” “Hacienda San Manuel,” and many others… ].  And that was the period before the acquisition of the ++ 6,000 hectare Hacienda Luisita by Jose Cojuangco in the 1950s.

    Ysidra and Melecio Cojuangco were related on their maternal side to the Pangasinan Estrella, who were also migrants from Malolos, Bulacan.

    Yes, there is the persistent and undying story in Manila high society of Ysidra Cojuangco, General Antonio Luna, the “bagones” cartloads of Katipunan gold, Antonio Cojuangco, Ysidra’s flight from Malolos, Bulacan to Paniqui, Tarlac, the beginnings of the famed Cojuangco fortune, and all that. A very interesting story with no historical proof. It is about as believable as President Ferdinand Marcos’ possession of the “Yamashita Treasure.”

    Toto Gonzalez

  24. x said,

    September 21, 2006 at 12:59 pm

    You mean Chichioco instead of Chichoco? Ramon of the PLDT/Prime Holdings fame is also her descendant.

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